Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is one of the most widely studied inorganic phase change material for energy storage and energy conservation applications. Monoclinic VO2 [VO2(M)] changes from semiconducting phase to metallic rutile phase at near room temperature and the resultant abrupt suppressed infrared transmittance at high temperature makes it a potential candidate for thermochromic smart window application to cut the air-condition usage. Meanwhile proper electrical potential, stable structure and good interaction with lithium ions make metastable VO2 [VO2(B)] an attractive material for fabrication of electrodes for batteries and supercapacitors. However, some long-standing issues have plagued its usage. In thermochromic application, high transition temperature (τc), low luminous transmittance (Tlum) and undesirable solar modulation ability (△Tsol) are the key problems, while in energy storage applications, short cycling lifetime and complex three-dimension microstructure are the major challenges. The common methods to produce VO2 polymorph are physical vapour deposition (PVD), chemical vapour deposition (CVD), sol-gel synthesis, and hydrothermal method. CVD is an intensively studied method due to its ability to produce uniform films with precise stoichiometry, phase and morphology control. This paper reviews the various CVD techniques to produce VO2 with controlled phases and the ternary diagram shows the relationship between film stoichiometry and various process conditions. The difference between the various CVD systems are commented and the process window to produce VO2 are tabulated. Some strategies to improve VO2′s performance in both energy conservation and energy storage applications are discussed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research is supported by grants from the National Research Foundation , Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore under its Campus of Research Excellence and Technological Enterprise (CREATE) programme, Ministry of Education (MOE) Tier one, RG124/16 and NRF2015NRF-POC002-019.
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd
- Atomic layer deposition
- Chemical vapor deposition
- Lithium-ion battery
- Vanadium dioxide