Variational quantum simulation of U(1) lattice gauge theories with qudit systems

Pavel P. Popov, Michael Meth, Maciej Lewestein, Philipp Hauke, Martin Ringbauer, Erez Zohar, Valentin Kasper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Lattice gauge theories are fundamental to various fields, including particle physics, condensed matter, and quantum information theory. Recent progress in the control of quantum systems allows for studying Abelian lattice gauge theories in table-top experiments. However, several challenges remain, such as implementing dynamical fermions in higher spatial dimensions and magnetic field terms. Here, we map U(1) Abelian lattice gauge theories in arbitrary spatial dimensions onto qudit systems with local interactions. We propose a variational quantum simulation scheme for the qudit system with a local Hamiltonian, that can be implemented on a universal qudit quantum device as the one developed in [Nat. Phys. 18, 1053 (2022)]10.1038/s41567-022-01658-0. We describe how to implement the variational imaginary-time evolution protocol for ground-state preparation as well as the variational real-time evolution protocol to simulate nonequilibrium physics on universal qudit quantum computers, supplemented with numerical simulations. Our proposal can serve as a way of simulating lattice gauge theories, particularly in higher spatial dimensions, with minimal resources, regarding both system sizes and gate count.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number013202
JournalPhysical Review Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

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© 2024 authors. Published by the American Physical Society. Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.


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