Video-Conference-Based Graphomotor Examination for Children: A Validation Study

Rachel Tzofia Sinvani*, Yafit Gilboa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Telehealth can assist with providing accessible pediatric occupational therapy services. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the acceptability, inter-rater reliability, and concurrent validity of the Gilboa Functional Test (GIFT) as a video-conference-based graphomotor examination for children (GIFT-Online). Methodology: A community-based sample of 157 children aged 3 to 7 years was screened using the GIFT-Online. Findings: Inter-rater reliability was excellent (r = 0.97; p <.001; n = 40). In addition, significant correlations were found between the total GIFT-Online scores and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ’07), the Little DCDQ (LDCDQ) (r = 0.29, p <.001; n = 157), and the Drawing Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (DPSQ) (r = −0.35, p <.001; n = 157); demonstrating construct and concurrent validity. The online assessment was well received by parents and children. Conclusions: The GIFT-Online was found to be an acceptable method of assessing graphomotor performance. Our results support the validity and reliability of the GIFT-Online as a screening tool administered remotely, thereby overcoming physical distancing and travel restrictions.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)351-359
JournalOTJR Occupation, Participation and Health
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2023.


  • concurrent validity
  • fine-motor
  • inter-rater reliability
  • occupational therapy
  • online tool
  • satisfaction
  • screening
  • tele-evaluation
  • test development


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