A large-scale comprehensive survey of indicator bacteria, pathogen viruses, coliphages, microbial source tracking (MST) indicators, and antibiotic resistance genes was carried out in the Shafdan soil aquifer treatment (SAT) of the Tel Aviv, Israel area. The study reveals complete elimination of pathogen viruses - enterovirus, adenovirus, norovirus, parechovirus, and coliphage - and of the bacterial indicators total and fecal coliforms, fecal streptococcus, and microbial source tracking (MST) Bacteroides already in the vadose zone below the percolation basins. Trace levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were detected in the recovery wells, but these were also detected in wells not impacted by effluent, suggesting that these genes are associated with native aquifer bacterial communities. This is the first comprehensive survey describing four types of microbial indicators - bacteria, pathogenic viruses, coliphages, and MST - for SAT research, and the first to address the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes in SAT systems. The results should provide guidance to regulatory agencies regarding the attainable efficiency of optimally designed and operated SAT systems and the monitoring point locations. Most of the pathogen removal occurs in the vadose zone underneath the basins, which can be monitored more rapidly than the water quality in the recovery wells.
|Original language||American English|
|Journal||Journal of Environmental Engineering, ASCE|
|State||Published - 1 Mar 2018|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors acknowledge Mekorot Ltd. for funding the research; the authors also thank the Israeli Ministry of Health for the professional work and support. Roberto B.M. Marano acknowledges the ANSWER project, which has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant No. 675530. Part of the work presented in this paper is part of a project that has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant No. 675530
© 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers.
- Effluent disinfection
- Effluent polishing
- Managed artificial recharge (MAR)
- Reclaimed water
- Soil aquifer treatment (SAT)
- Wastewater reuse