Sol-gel derived indicator ceramic carbon electrodes (CCEs) made of graphite powder entrapped in hydrophobically modified silica gel are presented. Voltammetric characteristics of the electrodes are compared with other classes of graphite electrodes. Background current, double layer capacitance and metrological characteristics, including renewal repeatability, interelectrode reproducibility and operational stability for various solvents are presented. The indicator CCEs exhibit better stability than carbon paste electrodes and their renewal is easier and more reproducible than that of glassy carbon electrodes.
- Ceramic carbon electrodes