The optical and light emission properties of tin and lead halide perovskites are remarkable because of the robust room-temperature (RT) performance, broad wavelength tunability, high efficiency, and good quenching resistance to defects. These highly desirable attributes promise to transform current light-emitting devices, phosphors, and lasers. One disadvantage in most of these materials is the sensitivity to moisture. Here, we report a new air-stable one-dimensional (1D) hybrid lead-free halide material (DAO)Sn2I6 (DAO, 1,8-octyldiammonium) that is resistant to water for more than 15 h. The material exhibits a sharp optical absorption edge at 2.70 eV and a strong broad orange light emission centered at 634 nm, with a full width at half-maximum (fwhm) of 142 nm (0.44 eV). The emission has a long photoluminescence (PL) lifetime of 582 ns, while the intensity is constant over a very broad temperature range (145-415 K) with a photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of at least 20.3% at RT. Above 415 K the material undergoes a structural phase transition from monoclinic (C2/c) to orthorhombic (Ibam) accompanied by a red shift in the band gap and a quench in the photoluminescence emission. Density functional theory calculations support the trend in the optical properties and the 1D electronic nature of the structure, where the calculated carrier effective masses along the inorganic chain are significantly lower than those perpendicular to the chain. Thin films of the compound readily fabricated from solutions exhibit the same optical properties, but with improved PLQY of 36%, for a 60 nm thick film, among the highest reported for lead-free low-dimensional 2D and 1D perovskites and metal halides.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was primarily supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Grant No. SC0012541 (sample synthesis, structure and property characterization). This work made use of the SPID and EPIC facilities of Northwestern University’s NUANCE Center as well as the IMSERC facilities, which have received support from the Soft and Hybrid Nanotechnology Experimental (SHyNE) Resource (NSF ECCS-1542205), the MRSEC program (NSF DMR-1720139) at the Materials Research Center, from the State of Illinois, and the International Institute for Nanotechnology (IIN). J.E. acknowledges Institut Universitaire de France for funding. This project received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program under grant agreement no. 862656. This work was granted access to the HPC resources of [TGCC/CINES/IDRIS] under the allocation 2019-A0070907682 made by GENCI. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Nanoscale Materials, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility, and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Work on the thin film fabrication and evaluation at Rice was supported by the DOE-EERE 2022-1652 program.
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