Wood Warping Composite by 3D Printing

Doron Kam, Ido Levin, Yinnon Kutner, Omri Lanciano, Eran Sharon*, Oded Shoseyov*, Shlomo Magdassi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Wood warping is a phenomenon known as a deformation in wood that occurs when changes in moisture content cause an unevenly volumetric change due to fiber orientation. Here we present an investigation of wood warped objects that were fabricated by 3D printing. Similar to natural wood warping, water evaporation causes volume decrease of the printed object, but in contrast, the printing pathway pattern and flow rate dictate the direction of the alignment and its intensity, all of which can be predesigned and affect the resulting structure after drying. The fabrication of the objects was performed by an extrusion-based 3D printing technique that enables the deposition of water-based inks into 3D objects. The printing ink was composed of 100% wood-based materials, wood flour, and plant-extracted natural binders cellulose nanocrystals, and xyloglucan, without the need for any additional synthetic resins. Two archetypal structures were printed: cylindrical structure and helices. In the former, we identified a new length scale that gauges the effect of gravity on the shape. In the latter, the structure exhibited a shape transition analogous to the opening of a seedpod, quantitatively reproducing theoretical predictions. Together, by carefully tuning the flow rate and printing pathway, the morphology of the fully dried wooden objects can be controlled. Hence, it is possible to design the printing of wet objects that will form different final 3D structures.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number733
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • 3D printing
  • Nanocellulose
  • Shape programming
  • Wood


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