Worst-case analysis of target localization errors in fiducial-based rigid body registration

Reuben R. Shamir, Leo Joskowicz

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Fiducial-based rigid registration is the preferred method for aligning the preoperative image with the intra-operative physical anatomy in existing image-guided surgery systems. After registration, the targets locations usually cannot be measured directly, so the Target Registration Error (TRE) is often estimated with the Fiducial Registration Error (FRE), or with Fitzpatrick TRE (FTRE) estimation formula. However, large discrepancies between the FRE and the TRE have been exemplified in hypothetical setups and have been observed in the clinic. In this paper, we formally prove that in the worst case the FRE and the TRE, and the FTRE and the TRE are independent, regardless of the target location, it location, the number of fiducials, and their configuration. The worst case occurs when the unknown Fiducial Localization Error (FLE) is modeled as an affine anisotropic inhomogeneous bias. Our results generalize previous examples, contribute to the mathematical understanding of TRE estimation in fiducial-based rigid-body registration, and strengthen the need for realistic and reliable FLE models and effective TRE estimation methods.

Original languageAmerican English
Title of host publicationMedical Imaging 2009 - Image Processing
StatePublished - 2009
EventMedical Imaging 2009 - Image Processing - Lake Buena Vista, FL, United States
Duration: 8 Feb 200910 Feb 2009

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


ConferenceMedical Imaging 2009 - Image Processing
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityLake Buena Vista, FL


  • Image-guided therapy
  • Rigid registration


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