As part of a large salvage project at Yiftahel, Lower Galilee, Israel, layers of a Pre-Pottery Neolithic B village (of the 7th millennium B.c.) were uncovered. The excavation concentrated on a single dwelling, Structure 700, one of the largest of this period ever excavated in the Levant. Evidence for spatial variation in usage enables reconstruction of some of the activities carried out within and outside the dwelling. A unique find was a store of more than 2000 horsebean seeds, which predates the earliest previously-known use of this vetch by about 2000 years. The excellent state of preservation of the significant botanical and faunal remains at Yiftahel enables a better understanding of the diffusion of domesticated plants and animals and their exploitation in the various Neolithic communities.